A really really great post!
A few years ago the conservator of the Antwerp Vleeshuis museum showed me this picture.
It’s named “The Calvinist uproar restrained”, and was made by Frans Hogenberg between 1567 and 1570. This was the time of the 80-year war between Philip II of Spain and the Low Countries. Philip, the son of emperor Charles V, was a devout catholic. But in Germany the ideas of former monk Martin Luther (also an accomplished lute player) were rising.
Philip on a 1/5 Philipsdaalder, struck in 1566
Unlike his father (who had grown up here), Philip was raised in Spain, under a very strict protocol. He didn’t have much sympathy for that little swamp in the north. Especially not when the people of that small province started to rebel against his reign. The Netherlands (which also contained Flanders) wanted autonomy and religious freedom. The rebels found an ideological justification in Protestantism, and…
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